Leftist intellectuals, Nehru and Jinnah

Partition of India resulted in migration of population. Hindus and Sikhs moved to India while Muslims went to Pakistan.

Due to combined incompetence of British administration, Congress and League leaders, migration resulted in loss of property, rape of women, killing on mass scale. India was flooded with refugees from Punjab and Sindh provinces of West Pakistan.

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While Congress had some experience of administration, League had none.

In election of 1946 League had done exceptionally well. Failure of League in 1937 elections was forgotten, Jinnah’s friend Churchill was in favour of Pakistan, Pakistan was becoming a reality and at the same time Jinnah got offer from Gandhi to become prime minister of India(This highly displeased Nehru and Patel, forcing Gandhi to withdraw offer). To cut long story short, between 1946 to 1947, both Nehru and Jinnah were offered positions which they were either not ready or capable of.

Creation of Pakistan is result of developments between Quit India Movement to partition of India. It was during this period that League benefited from leadership of Jinnah. Credit of converting prevailing circumstances into formation of Pakistan goes to him.

INDIA CONFERENCE

Initial days were tough for refugees. But gradually they managed to mingle with the society.

Post independence Nehru wanted India to be a socialist and secular republic, while Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be an Islamic state that will be fair to minority.

Some refugees were smart enough to see future trends. Partition has wiped out their past in Pakistan, now was chance to create a new future.

We will study two such personalities.

Thapars were refugees from Lahore, the Thapar siblings – Romesh and Romilla, were smart enough to see that it made sense to be labelled as nationalist and leftist (both terms were dear to Nehru). They started newspaper which glorified Nehru, Romilla managed to become historian, without knowledge of any of ancient Indian languages like Sanskrit, Tamil or Prakrit, she managed to gain label of eminent historian. Romesh was leftist intellectual.

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Romilla also invented a story that at age of 15-16 she met Gandhi and after that started wearing Khadi, hence become nationalist. So she was nationalist ( she once wore a khadi dress) and leftist responsible for creating history which showed that leftist contributed to independence of Indian , while in reality leftist supported British and Pakistan).

History writing also resulted in dividing national leaders as leftists and rightists. Some like Tilak, Lajpat Rai, Sardar Patel become rightist, while Nehru, Bose become leftist. Even revolutionaries were branded as rightists (ex. Khudiram Bose became rightist because he believed in Gita, while Bhagat Singh was leftist).

Once division of national leaders was made, so called leftist leaders were shown as superior to so called rightist. To make this version official a University was formed- Jawaharlal Nehru University, in which all leftist historians got secure government jobs.  Once they had grabbed secure jobs, they started writing “official version” of history which was Nehru’s version of history.

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Second personality was Kuldeep Nayar, Kuldeep came from Sialkot, on reaching India, he declared himself to be a secular leftist intellectual. He also invented a story that he was beaten up by police for wearing Gandhi cap- hence nationalist and he was also member of some students union in college, hence leftist and sometimes he ate mutton curry in canteen meant for Muslim students-hence secular. Soon he becomes well known as journalist with secular and leftist views.

So Nehru dynasty managed to create an ecosystem, where they had army of historians, journalists and historians, which wrote their version of history. Since Congress ruled India for decades, their existence was never threatened.

Creation of Pakistan was equated with history of communalism- formation of League, Hindu Mahasabha and RSS. Instead of linking formation of Pakistan to events of last 3-4 years before partition and acknowledging the role of leadership provided by Jinnah, it pushed back history of partition to 1906. All so called rightist leaders were blamed for communalism. No explanation was given for why communists joined Muslim League and demanded Pakistan.

Pakistani historians did even better; they liked formation of Pakistan to invasion of India by Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 A D!

Lucifer Effect, Abu Gharib Prison and Emergency

Lucifer was favorite angel of God. He was above every other angel in heaven. His appearance was beautiful and dazzling as he was covered with gold and shimmering jewels.

Lucifer began to grow proud of his own glory and wisdom. He wanted himself to be worshipped like God. One third of angels in heaven supported him. This forced God to throw him out of heaven along with his followers. He got the name Satan after he was thrown out of heaven. Satan and his angels are demons. They tempt and influence people on earth.

Philip George Zimbardo is a psychologist at Stanford University. He is known for his Stanford prison experiment.

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Zimbardo was influenced by story of Lucifer and wrote a book called “The Lucifer Effect” which explains how good people turn evil. Zimbardo’s main assumption on why good people do terrible things is due to situational influences and power given from authority.

The “Lucifer Effect” describes the point in time when an ordinary, normal person first crosses the boundary between good and evil to engage in an evil action. It represents a transformation of human character that is significant in its consequences.

Lucifer Effect was first demonstrated in Stanford Prison Experiment, which was a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. The participants in this experiment were divided into prisoners and guards.

The participants adapted to their roles well beyond Zimbardo’s expectations, as the guards enforced authoritarian measures and ultimately subjected some of the prisoners to psychological torture. Many of the prisoners passively accepted psychological abuse and, at the request of the guards, readily harassed other prisoners who attempted to prevent it. The experiment which was supposed to go on for 2 weeks had to be called off with six days.

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Another example of Lucifer Effect can be seen in case of prisoners in Abu Ghraib Prison. Control of a prison in city of Abu Ghraib in Iraq was taken over by the US army in 2003. The US army misused their power over prisoners to torture and kill the prisoners. The event shook the world.

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Colombian artist Fernando Botero, who is known for his signature style called “Boterismo”, which depicts people and figures in large, exaggerated volume, did series of paintings on torture of prisoners at Abu Gharib.

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In India, between 25th June 1975 to 21st March 1977, then prime minister of India to get rid of her opponents declared emergency in India.  Rights of citizens were taken away. Her son Sanjay Gandhi become de facto ruler of India. He misused the vast power emergency gave to his mother.

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Opponents of his mother were put in prison; hundreds of suspects were arrested and tortured. Many were forcibly sterilized. Homes of many were demolished under the slum rehabilitation scheme.

After lifting of emergency Indira Gandhi lost elections.

 

Arthur Wellesley, Tipu Sultan and Napoleon

Year was 1769, three events occurred in three different countries, which at that time were not related to each other, but were to have big impact in future.

In 1769, Sultan of Mysore Hyder Ali was fighting war against British, in this he was actively aided by his 19 years old son Tipu. Hyder Ali won this first war against British resulting in treaty of Madras.

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Tipu was eldest son of Hyder Ali and was named after Muslim saint Tipu Mastan Aulia. Hyder Ali was an Arab adventurer who had seized kingdom of Mysore from Wadiyar family. Both Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan were great warriors. They brought lot of innovations in field of warfare ex. use of Mysorean rockets and indigenously build flintlock blunderbuss.

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In 1769, a son was born to a rich family in Corsica. Parents Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino named their son Napoleone (later well known as Napoleon).

In same year a son was born to Irish family in Dublin. Parents Garret Wesley and Anne named their son Arthur.

Like Tipu of Mysore, Napoleon and Arthur were to become great warriors.

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Arthur joined British army and after sometimes was transferred to India in 1797. His elder brother Robert was Governor General of India. After coming to India he changed his surname to Wellesley.

“Having occupied and fortified Egypt, we shall send a force of 15,000 men from Suez to India, to join the forces of Tipu-Sahib and drive away the English.”

– Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord

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At the same time, Napoleon was on expedition to Egypt and was to in touch with Tipu Sultan. Both were anti British and were keen to get rid of British. But that never happened.

In 1798 French navy in Egypt was destroyed by Admiral Horatio Nelson of British Navy. In same year there was war between Tipu Sultan and British, the British army was led by Arthur Wellesley. Final battle took place in 1799 at Tipu Sultan’s capital Seringapatam, in which Tipu was shot dead. British were victors and they gave kingdom to Mysore back to Wadiyar family.

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“To live like a lion for a day is far better than to live for a hundred years like a jackal.”

-Tipu Sultan

In 1804 Napoleon became Emperor of France. He conquered many countries of Europe, but after invasion of Russia, his downfall started and finally was forced to abdicate the throne. He was exiled to island to Elba. But he came back to France and gained control of France. In battle fought at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815, he faced army led by Arthur Wellesley. Arthur Wellesley defeated Napoleon in battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was now exiled to island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.

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“The whole art of war consists of guessing at what is on the other side of the hill.”

-Arthur Wellesley

In 1828, Arthur Wellesley became Prime Minister of Britain. He died in 1852.

 

 

 

Idi Amin, Yonatan Netanyahu and Operation Entebbe

“In another week I’ll be 23. On me, on us, the young men of Israel, rests the duty of keeping our country safe. This is a heavy responsibility, which matures us early… I do not regret what I have done and what I’m about to do. I’m convinced that what I am doing is right. I believe in myself, in my country and in my future”

-Yonatan Netanyahu in a letter to his parents in 1969

Benzion Netanyahu was professor of history at Cornell University. He had three sons – Yonatan, Benjamin and Iddo.  Yonatan was a brilliant student who joined Harvard University. In 1969 Yonatan left his studies and decided to join Israeli army. Yonatan was part of elite commando unit of Israeli army- Sayeret Matkal.

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In same year, in faraway Uganda, President Milton Obote was having problems with his army commander Idi Amin. Two years later Idi Amin overthrew Obote in a military coup and declared himself as President of Uganda.

After becoming president, Idi Amin killed people who he believed were his enemies. Thousands of people were killed.

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In 1972, he made Europeans and Asians his target, he grabbed their property and distributed it among his sycophants. Indians in Uganda were mainly businessmen whose prosperity was due to their hard work and business acumen. After grabbing their property he drove Indians out of Uganda.

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“We are determined to make the ordinary Ugandan master of his own destiny and, above all, to see that he enjoys the wealth of his country. Our deliberate policy is to transfer the economic control of Uganda into the hands of Ugandans, for the first time in our country’s history.”

— Idi Amin

Idi Amin later declared himself anti-Israeli. In June 1976 an Air France airliner was hijacked by Palestinians. Idi Amin allowed hijackers to land flight in Uganda at Entebbe airport and personally welcomed the hijackers.

Israel decided to rescue the passengers. It sent a commando team to Uganda. The rescue operation called Operation Entebbe was well planned operation. The commandos rescued most of the passengers (3 hostages got killed), killed hijackers and 45 Ugandan soldiers. They also destroyed fighter planes of Ugandan Air Force.

In this operation only one Israeli commando got killed- Yonatan Netanyahu.

One 75 years old lady Dora Bloch got left behind as she was in hospital during operation. Ugandan Army took revenge by killing her.

“A bullet had torn the young heart of one of Israel’s finest sons, one of its most courageous warriors, one of its most promising commanders – the magnificent Yonatan Netanyahu”

– Shimon Peres

In 1979, Tanzanian army along with Ugandan exiles attacked Uganda and defeated Idi Amin. Idi Amin escaped to Libya and later settled down in Saudi Arabia where he died in 2003.

Yonatan’s brother Benjamin is current prime minister of Israel.

14th August 1947-Jinnah, Nehru and Gandhi

“Man-made catastrophe brought about by cynical and hot-headed politicians who lacked the imagination to resolve their disputes and the foresight to grasp the implications of dividing their country along religious lines.”

-Prof. Mushirul Hasan

Between 14th and 15th of August 1947, two nations celebrated Independence Day. On one side were leaders who were eager to lead nations and on other side were millions of Indians who faced uncertain future.

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So what were leaders doing on 14th August 1947?

“I do not think Jinnah wanted Pakistan, right till 1946 he was prepared to work for one united India. So all the time he was talking in terms of Pakistan, this was, I always believed, a bargaining point for him.”

-Ayesha Jalal, Pakistani Historian

On 14th August Jinnah was busy making plans for new nation- Pakistan, while Nehru was busy preparing midnight speech for old nation- India.

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On 14th August, Father of nation- Gandhi, was in Calcutta, trying to pacify rioters, in this he was actively supported by H S Suhrawardy of Muslim League, who was architect of Hindu – Muslim riots. After encouraging Muslims to kill Hindus on Direct Action day, Suhrawardhy now wanted peace, so that he could save lives of Muslims who stayed back in India. Charisma of Gandhi had not faded; he managed to bring peace in Calcutta.

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Law and order was still in hands of British, as they controlled police and armed forces. But they were least interested in doing their job; they just wanted to go back to Britain- ASAP.

“I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion.”

-Winston Churchill

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Viceroy of India thought he had done enough for India and natives, so he decided to relax with his wife and watch movie- “My Favourite Brunette”. His wife was now more interested in Nehru than her husband.

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So while key players were living in interesting times, life was hell for millions of Indians. Viceroy gave task of partition to a British lawyer Cyril Radcliff, who knew next to nothing about India. So on 14th of August he completed the task of partition. What happened next was one of the greatest human tragedies in history of mankind.

“Churchill’s idiocy, Gandhi’s blind spot and Jinnah’s dangerous bluff all added up to a turn of events which, when combined with Radcliffe’s line, shaped the world forever.”

-Doug Saunders

Millions of Indians were forced to migrate due to lines drawn by Radcliff; there was no one to protect them. Millions were killed, raped, robbed.

British armed forces and police were just not interested in controlling situation post partition, while Jinnah, Nehru and Gandhi lacked competence to administer.

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Post partition, Nehru became Prime minister of India and later gave birth of Nehru dynasty.

In 1948, Gandhi faced strange situation, he was labelled pro Hindu by League and pro Muslim by Congress, resulting in his assassination. In same year Jinnah died of illness.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Different Types of Coaching

“A coach is someone who does not tell anyone what to do; he does not give advice or provide solutions. He/she acts as a catalyst for a positive change in a way that is appropriate for individuals as well as organisation.”

A good coach creates a safe, supportive environment that produces ongoing mutual trust and respect. A Coach helps his/her clients develop and maintain an effective coaching plan and leaves them responsible to take action.

The Coaching as a concept, philosophy and a process can be applied in all work life as well as personal life situations, informally or formally.

Some of the professional applications of coaching used widely are in the following areas:

  1. Life/Personal coaching

Life coaching focuses on helping people identify and achieve personal goals. The tools and techniques used in life coaching at times could be similar to the ones used in other disciplines such as psychology, neuroscience, adult development and career counselling etc.

Life coaching is usually private/personal often done on telephone. The life coaches are generally self-employed and typically do weekly sessions of about 30-60 minutes. Focus is on self-fulfilment and life decisions, which generally features career and/or own business development aim. Life coaching is strongly facilitative, not imposed or prescriptive.

A professional coach may use inquiry, reflection requests and discussion to help clients identify personal and/or business and/or relationship goals, and develop action plans intended to achieve those goals. The client takes action, and the coach may assist, but never leads or does more than the client.

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  1. Business coaching

Business coaching provides positive support, feedback and advice to an individual or group basis to improve their personal effectiveness in the business setting. Business coaching includes executive coaching, corporate coaching and leadership coaching.

Business coaching is not the same as mentoring. Mentoring involves a developmental relationship between a more experienced “mentor” and a less experienced partner, and typically involves sharing of advice. A business coach can act as a mentor given that he or she has adequate expertise and experience.

Business coaches also focus on helping entrepreneurs develop the mindset necessary to be successful in business as well as helping them get clear on their brand, their mission, the audience they serve, and the overall vision they have for their business.

Some business coaches specialize in specific business aspects such as marketing, copywriting, networking, retreats, workshops/seminars, product development, operating systems, etc.

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  1. Executive coaching

Executive coaching is designed to help facilitate professional and personal development to the point of individual growth, improved performance and contentment. Most important, the coach attempts to stimulate the client’s self-discovery by posing powerful questions and/or assigning homework.

Executive coaches work their clients towards specific professional goals. These include career transition, interpersonal and professional communication, performance management, organizational effectiveness, managing career and personal changes, developing executive presence, enhancing strategic thinking, dealing effectively with conflict, and building an effective team within an organization.

It is often a service to the executive’s employer and paid for by the organization. Coaches are self-employed or employees of organisation, there is strong emphasis on leadership, strategy, relationships, and politics.

Executive coaches usually have considerable experience necessary for trust of their clients and fees are usually much higher than in life coaching

'He's a good listener, but only to the sound of his own voice.'

  1. Career coaching

Career coaching focuses on work and career or issues around careers. It is similar in nature to career counselling and traditional counselling. Career coaching is not to be confused with life coaching, which concentrates on personal development.

"I am afraid Mr. Jones is in his career coaching session. Can I get him to call you back?"

  1. Skills coaching

This form of coaching focuses on the core skills an employee needs to perform in their role. Skills coaching provide a flexible, adaptive, ‘just-in-time’ approach to skills development. Coaching programs are tailored specifically to the individual and are generally focused on achieving a number of skill development objectives that are linked to the needs of the organisation.

  1. Sports coaching

In sports, a coach is an individual that teaches and supervises, which involves giving directions, instruction and training of the on-field operations of an athletic team or of individual athletes. This type of coach gets involved in all the aspects of the sport, including physical and mental player development.

Sports coaches train their athletes to become better at the physical components of the game, while others train athletes to become better at the mental components of the game. The coach is assumed to know more about the sport, and have more previous experience and knowledge.

The coach’s job is to transfer as much of this knowledge and experience to the players to develop the most skilled athletes. When coaching it entail to the application of sport tactics and strategies during the game or contests itself, and usually entails substitution of players and other such actions as needed.

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  1. Relationship Coaching

Relationship coaches work with both couples and individuals to increase relationship skills. For singles, this could include attracting a partner, keeping a partner, and building a strong relationship foundation. Or for couples, it could include improving communication patterns, increasing intimacy, and responding better to one another.

Frank Hires a Relationship Coach.

  1. Health & Wellness Coaching

Health & wellness coaches focus on helping individuals and/or groups change their lifestyle to improve overall health and wellbeing. This could include revamping a diet, increasing self-care regimen, developing a workout routine, etc.

Certain health and wellness coaches specify in certain lifestyle changes such as going sugar free, gluten free, vegetarian, and/or vegan. Health and wellness coaching can also extend to a holistic perspective to include spirituality, relationship, and self-confidence aspects.

Some clients choose to stay with the same life coach as they gain further direction while some decide to work with a coach that is more specialized. For instance, a client who came to the realization they wanted to start a business while working with their personal life coach may then go on to work with a business coach to help get their business off the ground.

There are also subspecialties that can exist within each niche. Some coaches also specialize in working with only women vs. only men. A coach could also provide group coaching or individual coaching.

Making of Constitution- Story of India and Pakistan

“At one stage it was being said that the Assembly had taken too long a time to finish its work, that it was going on leisurely and wasting public money. It was said to be a case of Nero fiddling while Rome was burning. Is there any justification for this complaint?

Let us note the time consumed by Constituent Assemblies in other countries appointed for framing their Constitutions. To take a few illustrations, the American Convention met on May 25th, 1787 and completed its work on September 17, 1787 i.e., within four months. The Constitutional Convention of Canada met on the 10th October 1864 and the Constitution was passed into law in March 1867 involving a period of two years and five months. The Australian Constitutional Convention assembled in March 1891 and the Constitution became law on the 9th July 1900, consuming a period of nine years. The South African Convention met in October, 1908 and the Constitution became law on the 20th September 1909 involving one year’s labour.

 It is true that we have taken more time than what the American or South African Conventions did. But we have not taken more time than the Canadian Convention and much less than the Australian Convention.”

-Dr. B.R.Ambedkar

In 1946 elections were held in provinces of British India. A person could vote only if he/she had certain qualifications and property. For poor country like India it meant that very few could vote. Two parties whose performance everyone was watched with interest were Muslim League under leadership of Jinnah and Congress under Maulana Azad. Congress won 925 general seats and Muslim League won 425 seats reserved for Muslims. Communist Party of India also contested elections and ended up with just 8 seats.

Picture was now clear, Congress was strong in areas with Hindu majority ( though it won seats in Muslim majority NWFP – where Congress won 30 seats, while Muslim League won 17 seats), Muslim League won most of the seats reserved for Muslims, so now Jinnah would claim that League represented Muslims of India. Defeat of Communist Party proved that, in spite of tall claims by leftist historians, was insignificant party, plus their support to British during Second World War went against party.

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Elections made it clear that Muslims wanted a separate home land – Pakistan. The elected members of provincial assembly were to elect members for Central Assembly, which in turn was to design Constitution of India.

Provinces were Muslim League won more seats than Congress decided to form Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. Later India was partitioned into Hindu majority India and Muslim majority Pakistan.

Both nations began task of designing constitution for their respective nations.

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In India this task was given to Dr. B.R Ambedkar. The drafting committee consisted of Dr. Ambedkar as Chairman, six members and an advisor- Sir Benegal Narsing Rau. On 26th January 1950, the constitution was finally adopted.

First general elections were held in 1952, elections were fought for 489 seats, Congress won 364 seats with 45% of total votes polled. Both leftists and rightists did poorly, rightist won 10 seats with 6% share of votes and Communist party which fought elections under leadership of S.A.Dange won 16 seats with 3.29% vote share. Ironically designer of constitution Dr. Ambedkar lost election. He stood from constituency reserved for scheduled castes in Bombay, but lost to Narayan Kajrolkar of Congress.

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“We are all citizens and equal citizens of one state….Now I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal, and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State.”

– Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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In case of Pakistan the journey of constitution took a long route. It took nine years (India took 2 ½ years) for members to come up with constitution, in 1956, constitution was adopted making Pakistan an Islamic Republic. But in 1958 martial law was declared and constitution was of no use. Later Pakistan came up with another version of constitution in 1973, but General Zia declared martial law and constitution was not in operation. The see saw of democracy and martial law continues in Pakistan.