“Did I win? Did I lose? Those are the wrong questions. The correct question is: Did I make my best effort?”
– Carol .S. Dweck
Alfred Binet designed a test to measure intelligence. It gave what is known as IQ level. It was number that told you how intelligent you are. Higher the IQ score, more intelligent you are.
Later cognitive psychologists felt that IQ as measure of intelligence was over rated ex. a person can have average IQ score but he can be genius in areas like music , art , sports etc.
Carol Dweck, professor of psychology at Stanford University did research in area of intelligence. She came with entity and incremental theory of talent.
Entity theory states that intelligence is a relatively unchangeable fact about who you are and about your potential to succeed i.e. you are born with fixed intelligence and creativity and you cannot do anything about it. So intelligence will act as limiting factor for some and supercharge fuel for others.
Incremental theory states that intelligence can be changed, esp. through efforts/hard work. Genetics is only starting point i.e. you are born with certain IQ, but with efforts and hard work you can master the art. Incremental theory holders have what is called as growth mindset.
Entity theory holders choose task that they already know will lead to success and avoid those that have chance of failure, as they ascribe failure to their limitations.
Incremental theory holders feel motivated by failure and see failure as opportunity to do better.
Bad bosses are firm believers in fixed intelligence, for them employees are either born competent or incompetent. They never believe in spending time with employees to enhance his talent through efforts ex. Coaching.
Good bosses always consider setback as temporary and will encourage subordinate to learn from failure and help him to live up to his potential.